Journal of Laboratory Physicians
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 227-233

Histopathological study with immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in placentas of hyperglycemic and diabetic women


1 Department of Pathology, Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Debashish Bhattacharjee
16/1 Motijheel Avenue, Flat 4E, Dumdum, Kolkata - 700 074, West Bengal
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JLP.JLP_148_16

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Aims and Objectives: Spectrum of hyperglycemia in pregnancy includes gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), mild hyperglycemia, and overt diabetes. Many authors have worked on morphological changes of the placenta in diabetes, but few studies have correlated histopathological changes with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunoexpression. The aim of this study was to detect different histopathological changes in various groups of diabetic placentas and to correlate with VEGF immunoexpression. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women were screened for diabetes. They were subsequently divided into normoglycemic (12 cases), GDM (33 cases), mild hyperglycemic (13 cases), and overt diabetes (18 cases). Placentas collected were subjected to histopathological examination. VEGF expressions were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results: Overt diabetic placenta displayed villous immaturity (44.4%), villous edema (38.9%), chorangiosis (61.1%), fibrinoid substance deposition (38.9%), and Hofbauer cell hyperplasia in 44.4% cases. GDM placentas displayed villous immaturity (45.5%), villous edema (45.5%), chorangiosis (42.4%), and fibrinoid substance deposition in 75.6% cases. Mild hyperglycemic placentas displayed villous immaturity (38.5%), chorangiosis (61.5%), and fibrinoid substance deposition in 61.5% cases. VEGF immunoexpression in GDM placentas was absent in all placental components except syncytiotrophoblast. VEGF expression in overt diabetic placentas was increased in syncytiotrophoblast and capillary endothelium compared to normoglycemic placentas. Mild hyperglycemic placentas expressed similar VEGF expression in all components when compared to normoglycemic controls. However, it displayed weak expression in vessel endothelium. Conclusion: Histopathological changes in diabetic placentas might be a consequence of altered or abnormal VEGF expression in diabetic placentas. Pathogenesis and VEGF expression in GDM placentas are significantly different from overt diabetic placentas.


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