Journal of Laboratory Physicians
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-16

Serological evidence of human leptospirosis in patients with acute undifferentiated febrile illness from Uttarakhand, India: A pilot study


Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohit Bhatia
Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JLP.JLP_121_18

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CONTEXT: To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of serological evidence of human leptospirosis from Uttarakhand state in India. AIMS: The aim of this study was to screen for serological evidence of leptospirosis in patients with acute undifferentiated febrile illness at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Uttarakhand. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A pilot study was conducted from March to November 2017. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three adult patients who presented in Medicine outpatient Department with a history of fever of ≥7 up to 14 days duration with or without other associated symptoms such as a headache, rashes, myalgia, arthralgia, and conjunctival suffusion were enrolled in the study using convenience sampling technique. Blood samples of these patients were collected and subjected to peripheral smear examination for malaria parasites, dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunochromatographic card test, IgM Typhidot, Leptospira and Scrub typhus IgM ELISA, respectively. Aerobic blood culture was performed in 24 cases. Relevant clinico-epidemiological details were obtained as per the pro forma formulated in accordance with the modified Faine's criteria. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 50.94% of males and 49.06% of females with a mean age ± standard deviation of 34.2 ± 15.2 years. Fifty febrile patients had additional symptoms of which myalgia was the most common (81.1%) followed by arthralgia (22.6%). Peripheral smears of all patients were negative for malaria parasites. Dengue and Typhidot IgM positivity was observed in two and eight patients, respectively. Six and five patients were tested positive by leptospira and scrub typhus IgM ELISA, respectively. Salmonella Typhi was isolated from blood sample of only one patient. Serum samples of two patients showed dual positivity. All six leptospira seropositive patients satisfied modified Faine's criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Leptospirosis is a seemingly unexplored infection in Uttarakhand and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute undifferentiated febrile illness.


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