Journal of Laboratory Physicians
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-10

Clinical profile and determinants of short-term outcome of acute kidney injury: A hospital-based prospective study from Northeastern India

Department of General Medicine, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Shillong, Meghalaya, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya
Department of General Medicine, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Mawdiangdiang, Shillong - 793 018, Meghalaya
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JLP.JLP_135_18

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CONTEXT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an outcome of multiple etiologies and is mostly reversible. Data on its incidence and outcome, particularly from India, are limited. AIMS: To study the etiology, clinical profile, and short-term prognosis in AKI. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A hospital-based prospective observational study on AKI. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five AKI patients diagnosed by Acute Kidney Injury network criteria were selected. Patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease were excluded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data were compiled using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17. Regression analysis was done for determining the association of various variables for mortality. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 41.09 ± 16.17 years with a male:female ratio of 1.42:1. Comorbidities were present in 37.3%, with diabetes mellitus (10.6%) and chronic liver disease (10.6%) being the most common. Fever was the most common (40%) presenting symptom, followed by oliguria (25.8%). Infection was the most common cause of AKI (56%), with sepsis in 26.7% followed by acute gastroenteritis in 17.3%. Pneumonia was the primary focus in 50% of cases with sepsis. Mean serum creatinine and urea at admission were 2.37 ± 0.90 and 92.44 ± 39.67 mg/dl, respectively. Serum creatinine rose progressively to 2.96 ± 1.18 and 3.26 ± 1.56 mg/dl at 24 and 48 h, respectively, since hospitalization. Majority of the cases (73.3%) were nonoliguric. Hemodialysis was necessary in 24% of cases. Mean hospital stay was 8.16 days. In-hospital mortality was 24%. Among survivors, 92.9% had complete renal recovery on discharge. Sepsis, need for hemodialysis, urea >100 mg/dl, and peak serum creatinine >3 mg/dl were contributors to mortality (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Infections, especially sepsis, were the most common cause of AKI. Hemodialysis was required in one-quarter of the patients. Sepsis, need for hemodialysis, and high creatinine were associated with a significantly higher mortality.

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