Journal of Laboratory Physicians
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2018
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-123

Online since Thursday, January 4, 2018

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Vitamin D and gastrointestinal cancer Highly accessed article p. 1
Ashish Mahendra, Karishma , Basanta Kumar Choudhury, Tamanna Sharma, Neha Bansal, Richa Bansal, Shivangi Gupta
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_49_17  PMID:29403195
Vitamin D serves as a precursor to the potent steroid hormone calcitriol, which has widespread actions throughout the body. Calcitriol regulates numerous cellular pathways that could have a role in determining cancer risk and prognosis. Low Vitamin D levels have been implicated in numerous disease processes including fracture risk, falls, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cancers. Metabolite of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 serves various functions such as maintaining the integrity of epithelial barrier and absorption of calcium and phosphate, and the host's defense against pathogens, and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells. Although epidemiological data remain inconsistent, and randomized control trials in humans do not yet exist to conclusively support a beneficial role for Vitamin D, results from some correlating studies strongly suggest that Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and that avoiding deficiency and adding Vitamin D supplements might be an economical and safe way to reduce cancer incidence and improve cancer prognosis and outcome. The present review highlights the role of Vitamin D in cancer of the gastrointestinal tract including esophagus, gastric (stomach), liver, pancreas, and colon.
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Biomedical waste management in India: Critical appraisal Highly accessed article p. 6
Priya Datta, Gursimran Kaur Mohi, Jagdish Chander
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_89_17  PMID:29403196
The safe and sustainable management of biomedical waste (BMW) is social and legal responsibility of all people supporting and financing health-care activities. Effective BMW management (BMWM) is mandatory for healthy humans and cleaner environment. This article reviews the recent 2016 BMWM rules, practical problems for its effective implementation, the major drawback of conventional techniques, and the latest eco-friendly methods for BMW disposal. The new rules are meant to improve the segregation, transportation, and disposal methods, to decrease environmental pollution so as to change the dynamic of BMW disposal and treatment in India. For effective disposal of BMWM, there should be a collective teamwork with committed government support in terms of finance and infrastructure development, dedicated health-care workers and health-care facilities, continuous monitoring of BMW practices, tough legislature, and strong regulatory bodies. The basic principle of BMWM is segregation at source and waste reduction. Besides, a lot of research and development need to be in the field of developing environmental friendly medical devices and BMW disposal systems for a greener and cleaner environment.
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Automated hematology analyzers: Recent trends and applications p. 15
Gaurav Chhabra
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_124_17  PMID:29403197
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Pattern of bone marrow involvement in non Hodgkin's lymphoma classified according to WHO classification: Report of a developing country Pakistan p. 17
Sadia Sultan, Naseer Baloch, Zeeshan Ansar Ahmed, Syed Mohammed Irfan, Saira Parveen
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_9_17  PMID:29403198
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available from developing countries in patients of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Hence, we reviewed the demographical profile along with bone marrow infiltration pattern in patients with NHL presented at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive study, adult patients with NHL were enrolled from January 2011 to December 2015. RESULTS: One hundred and Eighty-four histopathologically confirmed cases of NHL were identified. There were 139 males and 45 females, with a male-to-female ratio of 3:1. The mean age was 48.5 ± 16.0 years with the median age of 50 years. B-symptoms were present in 80.4% of patients. Lymph node enlargement was present in 71.1% of the cases. One hundred and sixty-eight patients had B-cell lymphoma (91.3%) and 16 patients had T-cell lymphoma (8.6%). Overall 158 (85.8%) patients had aggressive lymphoma. The frequency of bone marrow infiltration in our NHL patients was found to be 31.5%. Pattern of infiltrate was diffuse (14.6%) predominantly followed by interstitial (6.5%) and paratrabecular (5.4%) types of infiltration. The least common was nodular infiltrate accounted in 9 (4.8%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: B-cell lymphoma is more frequent than T-cell lymphoma. Younger age, aggressive lymphoma, and predominance of B-symptoms are more frequently seen. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration is more common in our set up probably because of a relatively late presentation in our patients.
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Need for appropriate specimen for microbiology diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis p. 21
Lakshmi Vemu, Sukanya Sudhaharan, Neeraja Mamidi, Padmasri Chavali
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_14_17  PMID:29403199
INTRODUCTION: Chronic osteomyelitis (COM) is a common infection, especially in developing countries. An adequate bone biopsy specimen processed with appropriate microbiology culture methods for isolation and identification of the causative organisms is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is a retrospective microbiology analysis of the specimen from 219 clinically diagnosed cases of COM between January 2013 and April 2016. RESULTS: The overall culture positivity was 111/219 (50. 6%), colonization was seen in 22/219 (10.5%), while the rest 86/219 (39.3%) were culture-negative specimen; culture positivity was highest from tissue specimen (71/113, 62.8%). Among the swabs, 40/106 (37.7%) were culture positive. About 28/40 (70%) culture-positive swabs showed significant growth of Gram-positive organisms. Colonization with skin flora such as diphtheroids and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci was seen in 22/106 (20.7%) of the swabs. Sterile cultures (44/106, 41.6%) were high among the swab specimen. Gram-positives were most common (75/111, 67.56%). Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant organism isolated in 70/111 (63%) cases. Gram-negative bacilli showed a high level of antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSION: As per our data, the culture yield from wound swabs was low or contaminated with normal skin flora, as compared to the biopsy or tissue specimen. Hence, an appropriate sampling of the infected bone using recommended protocols is highly essential for improving microbiological yield and the outcome of COM.
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A search for entrustable professional activities for the 1st year pathology postgraduate trainees p. 26
Pooja Sharma, Nadeem Tanveer, Aditi Goyal
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_51_17  PMID:29403200
INTRODUCTION: During the past decade, there has been a paradigm shift in medical education from the problem-based learning to competency-based training. This has forced a rethink on the way we evaluate the residents and finally give them the right to handle patients independently. This study makes the first attempt towards designing competency-based training program for pathology residents by formulating the entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for the 1st year pathology residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire comprising 18 potential EPAs in histopathology and 12 potential EPAs in cytology were circulated among the residents of Pathology Department. The respondents were asked to grade the EPAs on a scale of 0–4 based on how important they considered that activity as EPA. The cumulative score of each EPA was divided by the number of respondents to arrive at the average score. The EPAs with an average score of 3 or more qualified to be shortlisted as consensus EPAs. RESULTS: Five activities each of histopathology and cytopathology had an average score of 3 or above and were shortlisted as EPAs for the 1st year pathology postgraduates. Each of these was also mapped to their respective competencies. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need to restructure the postgraduate pathology curriculum in line with competency-based training. This study is the first step in this direction.
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Decreasing trend of seroprevalence of hepatic amoebiasis in tertiary care hospital of North India: 2010–2015 p. 31
Sonu Agrawal, Nishant Verma, Sowjanya Perumalla, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_91_17  PMID:29403201
BACKGROUND: Globally, amoebic liver abscess, a common extraintestinal complication of intestinal amoebiasis. Diagnosis of hepatic amoebiasis is based on the detection of anti-Entamoeba histolytica immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), because of its technique's relatively higher sensitivity and specificity (90%). AIM: The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatic amoebiasis in a referral tertiary care hospital in North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The blood samples were tested specifically for anti-E. histolytica IgG antibody using commercially available ELISA kit (RIDASCREEN® E. histolytica IgG [K1721] kit). RESULTS: A total of 879 patients (n = 879) were evaluated, of which 78.49% (690/879) were positive for anti-E. histolytica IgG antibody. The seroprevalence rates showed a declining trend from 2010 to 2015 with rates falling from 91.4% to 66.7%. He present a study showed the decreasing trend of seroprevalence of hepatic amoebiasis from 2010 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: This decrease may be attributed to several factors such as increase in awareness, improved hygienic practices, use of safe drinking water, better socioeconomic condition, and perhaps early treatment sought for intestinal amoebiasis.
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Thrombocytosis in children: Clinico-hematological profile from a single centre in Eastern India p. 34
Rachita Sarangi, Sarita Pradhan, Avantika Dhanawat, Rashmi Patanayak, Gautam Benia
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_90_17  PMID:29403202
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Thrombocytosis is not an uncommon finding in hemograms of children with an incidence of 6%–15% among hospitalized children. This study aims to determine the etiology of thrombocytosis and analyze various platelet parameters in children attending our hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care center in Odisha, in eastern part of India, for 6 months from July 2016 to December 2016. All children of age group 1–14 years of age attending pediatrics and other pediatric super specialty outdoors and/or admitted to indoors and whose complete blood counts (CBC) were done were included in the study. The CBC parameters such as hemoglobin, red blood cell indices, and platelet indices (platelet distribution width [PDW], mean platelet volume [MPV], platelet large cell ratio [P-LCR]) were noted. RESULTS: Out of 2500 hemograms done in pediatrics age group, 272 (10.8%) patients showed thrombocytosis. About 99.6% of cases were of secondary thrombocytosis. Only one case of primary thrombocytosis was encountered. The most common cause of secondary thrombocytosis was infection (39.5%) alone followed by iron deficiency anemia (14.1%). With increasing platelet counts, a decrease in MPV, P-LCR, and PDW was noted which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Thrombocytosis is not rare (10.8%) in children. Secondary thrombocytosis is common and predominatly attributed to infection.
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Diagnostic utility of quantitative cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase chain reaction in intestinal biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease p. 38
Mousumi Paul, Ekta Gupta, Priyanka Jain, Archana Rastogi, Vikram Bhatia
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_94_17  PMID:29403203
OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic utility of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been established. We aimed to compare diagnostic utility of qPCR for CMV in biopsy specimens with blood, serology, and histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 132 patients were included (92 ulcerative colitis [UC], 9 Crohn's disease, and 31 unclassified IBD). Comparison between CMV IgM, CMV DNA qPCR in biopsy, in blood and histopathology was done. Positive result in any of the test was considered as CMV infection. Various risk factors for CMV association with IBD were analyzed. RESULTS: Confirmed CMV infection was seen in 41 (31.1%) patients. Diagnostic sensitivity of different assays was: DNA in biopsy seen in 37 (90.2%), DNA in blood in 19 (46.3%), CMV IgM in 15 (36.5%), and histopathology in 8 (19.5%). Thirty-two UC cases were further followed up for a median time of 14.0 (R: 3–31) months. They were grouped as group I – biopsy and blood DNA both positive (14, 43.7%), Group II – biopsy positive and blood negative (17, 53.1%), and Group III – biopsy negative but blood positive (1, 3.1%). CMV DNA viral load in Group I was significantly higher (mean: 4.2 ± 1.0 log10copies/mg) than Group II (mean: 3.2 ± 0.6 copies/mg) and Group III (viral load: 2.69 log10copies/ml), P < 0.001. Steroid refractoriness was seen more in Group I cases (n = 9) P < 0.001. A cutoff of ≥2.5 log10 copies/mg of DNA in tissue was predictive for steroid refractoriness (AUROC = 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitation of CMV DNA in intestinal biopsy is a useful diagnostic tool and can predict response to steroid treatment in patients with UC.
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Clinical spectrum and diagnostic yields of Mycoplasma pneumoniae as a causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia p. 44
Saroj Dash, Rama Chaudhry, Benu Dhawan, Aparajit Ballav Dey, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Bimal Kumar Das
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_62_17  PMID:29403204
INTRODUCTION: Infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumonia) occurs worldwide which accounts for 15%–20% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia and indistinguishable clinically from other infectious causes of pneumonia. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to correlate it with other diagnostic methods such as culture, serology (ELISA), and conventional PCR along with the clinical signs and symptoms produced by M. pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 130 patients of all age groups presenting with clinical features of lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled over a period of 1 year and 2 months in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. M. pneumoni ae in throat swab samples was detected by real-time PCR, compared with culture, serology, conventional PCR, and clinical signs and symptoms. Univariate analyses were conducted to determine the association of M. pneumoniae infection among different categories of patients. RESULTS: Out of a total of 130 patients, 18 patients (14%) were positive for M. pneumoniae by any test; culture was positive in nine patients (50%), serology (IgM) in eight patients (44.4%), PCR in five patients (27.7%), and real-time PCR was positive in six patients (33.3%). Clinical signs and symptoms were higher in incidence in M. pneumoniae-positive patients. Age-matched healthy controls (30) were included in the study, and all were negative for any diagnostic test performed (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that combination of M. pneumoniae- specific testing modalities is required for the diagnosis of this etiological agent rather than a single diagnostic method.
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Evaluation of renal function in subclinical hypothyroidism p. 50
Vijayetha P Patil, Alagilwada S Shilpasree, Vidya S Patil, Kangokar R Pravinchandra, Deepti G Ingleshwar, Axita C Vani
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_67_17  PMID:29403205
INTRODUCTION: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) have a few or no symptoms or signs of thyroid dysfunction and thus by its very nature, SCH is a laboratory diagnosis. Serum creatinine is elevated and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values are reversibly reduced in overt hypothyroid patients. We hypothesize that SCH also may be associated with low GFR. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was (1) to know the effect of SCH on kidney function, (2) to find the correlation between the renal function parameter creatinine, estimated GFR (eGFR), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and (3) to know if creatinine values can be predicted by TSH values in SCH cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study for 1 year. A total of 608 subjects of either sex were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups: (1) SCH, (2) overt hypothyroidism (OHT), and (3) euthyroidism (ET). TSH, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and serum creatinine were estimated and eGFR was calculated using modification of diet in renal disease study equation and the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equations. RESULTS: Serum creatinine levels were higher and eGFR was lower significantly in the subclinical hypothyroid group when compared to the control ET group (P < 0.001). The overtly hypothyroid group had significantly higher levels of serum creatinine and lower eGFR when compared to both the groups (P < 0.001). Significant correlation between TSH, creatinine, and eGFR was found in OHT group only. Linear regression analysis showed the regression in creatinine upon TSH is attributable to 44.5% among OHT group, 48.2% in SCH group. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the SCH group behaves biochemically similar to OHT group and changes in serum creatinine reflect tissue hypothyroidism in SCH cases.
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A comparative evaluation of lithium estimation for samples collected in different tubes and its stability on storage p. 56
Saidaiah Ikkurthi, Srinivas Balachander, Bela Goyal, Altaf Ahmad Mir, Subho Chakrabarti, Arnab Pal
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_78_17  PMID:29403206
PURPOSE: Lithium (Li) is a well-established drug for the treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Li as a drug is known to possess a narrow therapeutic index. Thus, regular monitoring of blood Li in patients receiving Li therapy is essential. Plain tubes with clot activator are known to interfere with Li estimation. The current study was planned to compare Li estimation in sera from vacutainers with clot activator, and plasma from sodium heparinized vacutainers with that of Li estimation in sera from glass vials. The time-dependant stability of Li estimation on storage at 2°C–8°C for 48 h in these three set of tubes was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from the patients on Li therapy (n = 100) was collected in 3 different collection tubes: plain vacutainer with clot activator (S), Sodium heparinized vacutainer (P) and Glass vial (G) and was analyzed by ion selective electrode (ISE) analyzer for Li levels. Secondary aliquots were also taken from each type of collection tube and stored at 2°C–8°C. Time-dependant stability of Li estimation was checked at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h. ANOVA followed by Tukey's posttest was performed to calculate statistical significance taking glass vial as reference collection tube. Bland–Altman plots were plotted to compare between three collection tubes at baseline. Stability on storage was defined when >95% of the samples were within allowable error limit for that time point taking baseline levels as reference. RESULTS: A mean bias of 0.18 mmol/L and mean percentage bias of 19.9% in Li levels was observed between serum from (S) than serum from (G). This difference was found to be statistically significant. However, statistically nonsignificant mean bias of 0.02 mmol/L and mean percentage bias of 3.34% in Li levels was observed between plasma from (P) and serum from (G). Time-dependant stability was observed more in glass vials as compared to vacutainers with clot activator or sodium heparin. CONCLUSION: Serum from glass vial should be the preferred method for blood collection to determine Li levels.
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Hematological parameters of human immunodeficiency virus positive pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy in aminu kano teaching hospital Kano, North Western Nigeria p. 60
Ibrahim Abdulqadir, Sagir Gumel Ahmed, Aisha Gwarzo Kuliya, Jamilu Tukur, Aminu Abba Yusuf, Abubakar Umar Musa
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_80_17  PMID:29403207
CONTEXT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) scourge continues to affect young women within the reproductive age group and pregnancy is a recognized indication for the use antiretroviral (ARV) drugs among HIV-positive women. AIMS: The aim is to determine the combined effect of pregnancy, HIV and ARV drugs on the hematological parameters of the pregnant women. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a comparative cross-sectional study conducted among 70 each of HIV-positive and negative pregnant women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Bio-demographic and clinical data were extracted from the client folder and 4 ml of blood sample was obtained from each participant. Full blood count was generated using Swelab automatic hematology analyzer while reticulocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were conducted manually. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data analysis was performed using SPSS version software 16 while P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Pregnant women with HIV had statistically significant lower hematocrit and white blood cell (WBC) and higher ESR than pregnant women without HIV (P < 0.000). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of platelet and reticulocyte (P > 0.05). However, among HIV positive pregnant women, those with CD4 count <350/μL had statistically significant lower WBC and lymphocyte count than those with CD4 count ≥350/μL (P < 0.05), whereas, those on zidovudine (AZT)-containing treatment had statistically significant lower hematocrit and higher mean cell volume than those on non-AZT-containing treatment (P < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference in any of the hematological parameters (P > 0.050) between women on first- and second-line ARV regimens. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant difference in terms of hematological parameters between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in this environment.
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Internal quality control of blood products: An experience from a tertiary care hospital blood bank from Southern Pakistan p. 64
Sadia Sultan, Hasan Abbas Zaheer, Usman Waheed, Mohammad Amjad Baig, Asma Rehan, Syed Mohammed Irfan
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_97_17  PMID:29403208
INTRODUCTION: Internal quality control (IQC) is the backbone of quality assurance program. In blood banking, the quality control of blood products ensures the timely availability of a blood component of high quality with maximum efficacy and minimal risk to potential recipients. The main objective of this study is to analyze the IQC of blood products as an indicator of our blood bank performance. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the blood bank of Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, from January 2014 to December 2015. A total of 100 units of each blood components were arbitrarily chosen during the study. Packed red cell units were evaluated for hematocrit (HCT); random platelet concentrates were evaluated for pH, yield, and culture; fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate (CP) were evaluated for unit volume, factor VIII, and fibrinogen concentrations. RESULTS: A total of 400 units were tested for IQC. The mean HCT of packed red cells was 69.5 ± 7.24, and in 98% units, it met the standard (<80% of HCT). The mean platelet yield was 8.8 ± 3.40 × 109/L and pH was ≥6.2 in 98% bags; cultures were negative in 97% of units tested. Mean factor VIII and fibrinogen levels were found to be 84.24 ± 15.01 and 247.17 ± 49.69 for FFP, respectively. For CP, mean factor VIII and fibrinogen level were found to be 178.75 ± 86.30 and 420.7 ± 75.32, respectively. CONCLUSION: The IQC of blood products at our blood bank is in overall compliance and met recommended international standards. Implementation of standard operating procedures, accomplishment of standard guidelines, proper documentation with regular audit, and staff competencies can improve the quality performance of the transfusion services.
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Development of a dry-reagent mix-based polymerase chain reaction as a novel tool for the identification of Acinetobacter species and its comparison with conventional polymerase chain reaction p. 68
Raghavendra D Kulkarni, Mukti Nath Mishra, Jeevanandam Mohanraj, Arun Chandrasekhar, GS Ajantha, Sheetal Kulkani, Shama Bhat
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_74_17  PMID:29403209
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections are often caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria and the incidence is increasing. Acinetobacter, a Gram-negative bacillus, is commonly associated with the use of intravascular catheterization and airway intubation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification of Acinetobacter baumannii from samples has been standardized that use conventional wet-reagent mix. We have designed and optimized a dry-reagent mix for identification of Acinetobacter species by PCR. The dry-reagent mix can be stored at room temperature, has less chances of contamination, and thus can be used at point-of-care diagnosis. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The present work was focused on comparing the sensitivity and specificity of dry-reagent PCR mix over conventional wet-reagent PCR mix for identification of Acinetobacter species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Conventional wet-reagent mix based and dry-reagent mix based PCR were carried out for the DNA isolated from Acinetobacter species. The latter was also applied directly on bacterial growth without prior DNA extraction process. Equal numbers of bacterial isolates other than Acinetobacter species were also subjected to identification by the same protocols for determining the sensitivity and specificity of the test. RESULTS: The Acinetobacter species showed amplification of the target rpoB gene and the band was observed at 397 bp. The dry-reagent PCR mix results matched completely with the conventional wet-reagent PCR mix assay. All the non-Acinetobacter isolates were negative for the PCR. This indicates that the test is highly specific. The dry-reagent mix also contained an enzyme resistant to PCR inhibitors and capable of amplifying DNA directly from cells. CONCLUSION: Performance of dry-reagent PCR mix without the need for DNA extraction and preparation of a PCR mix proved to be more sensitive and reduce the handling error, minimizes the time, manual work, and skilled labor.
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Prevalence of hemoglobin variants and hemoglobinopathies using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography in central reference laboratory of India: A report of 65779 cases p. 73
Sandeep Warghade, Jyothi Britto, Reshma Haryan, Tejaswi Dalvi, Rajesh Bendre, Pratiksha Chheda, Sunmeet Matkar, Yogita Salunkhe, Milind Chanekar, Nilesh Shah
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_57_17  PMID:29403210
CONTEXT: Hemoglobinopathies constitute the world's most common genetically inherited red blood cell disorder. Screening and accurate identification of hemoglobin (Hb) variants have become increasingly important in antenatal diagnosis and prevention of Hb disorders. AIM: The aim of this study was to screen and identify Hb fractions prevalent in the Central Reference Laboratory of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65,779 cases were screened for hemoglobinopathies on the bio-rad variant high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system by beta-thalassemia short program. The retention times, proportion of the hemoglobin (%) and the peak characteristics for all hemoglobin fractions were recorded. Molecular analysis of the beta-globin gene was carried out by DNA sequencing on eight cases. RESULTS: Total number of abnormal Hb fractions on cation exchange-HPLC (CE-HPLC) was seen in 12,131 (18.44%) cases. Beta-thalassemia trait was the predominant genetic Hb disorder accounting for 7377 cases (11.21%) of the total cases. This was followed by sickle cell trait (2.01%), sickle cell disease (1.59%), beta-thalassemia syndrome (0.80%), HbE trait (0.79%), and borderline HbA2 (0.51%). Molecular characterization of eight rare cases of hemoglobin variants by beta-globin gene sequencing identified three cases of Hb Beth Israel, two cases of Hb Hofu trait, and one case each of Hb J Cambridge, Hb Mizunami, and Hb Sherwood Forest. CONCLUSION: Superior resolution, rapid assay time, and accurate quantification make CE-HPLC suitable for the routine investigation of hemoglobinopathies.
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Evaluation of new indigenous “point-of-care” ABO and Rh grouping device p. 80
Aseem Kumar Tiwari, Divya Setya, Geet Aggarwal, Dinesh Arora, Ravi C Dara, Ankita Ratan, Gunjan Bhardwaj, Devi Prasad Acharya
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_71_17  PMID:29403211
BACKGROUND: Erycard 2.0 is a “point-of-care” device that is primarily being used for patient blood grouping before transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Erycard 2.0 was compared with conventional slide technology for accuracy and time taken for ABO and Rh forward grouping result with column agglutination technology (CAT) being the gold standard. Erycard 2.0 as a device was also evaluated for its stability under different storage conditions and stability of result till 48 h. In addition, grouping of hemolyzed samples was also tested with Erycard 2.0. Ease of use of Erycard 2.0 was evaluated with a survey among paramedical staff. RESULTS: Erycard 2.0 demonstrated 100% concordance with CAT as compared with slide technique (98.9%). Mean time taken per test by Erycard 2.0 and slide technique was 5.13 min and 1.7 min, respectively. After pretesting storage under different temperature and humidity conditions, Erycard 2.0 did not show any deviation from the result. The result did not change even after 48 h of testing and storage under room temperature. 100% concordance was recorded between pre- and post-hemolyzed blood grouping. Ease of use survey revealed that Erycard 2.0 was more acceptable to paramedical staff for its simplicity, objectivity, and performance than conventional slide technique. CONCLUSION: Erycard 2.0 can be used as “point-of-care” device for blood donor screening for ABO and Rh blood group and can possibly replace conventional slide technique.
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Volume, conductance, and scatter parameters of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lymphocytes using Coulter LH780 p. 85
Chidambharam Choccalingam
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_65_17  PMID:29403212
PURPOSE: Automated hematology analyzers yield a complete hematological profile including a complete blood count and a differential white blood cell count. The differential count is based on analyses of three parameters, namely, volume, conductance, and scatter (VCS). We aimed to evaluate the VCS parameters, histograms, and scatterplots of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lymphocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were grouped into four categories, namely, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic systemic disorders, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and acute viral disease. Lymphocytes from all four groups were compared with lymphocytes from normal participants. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The histogram for acute viral disease showed a trough at T1, which was slightly obliterated, and the F1 curve mildly extended to the right. The T1 for ALL was replaced with a peak at >40% of the preset limit. The F1 peak was shifted to left for CLL. The scatterplot for viral disease showed lymphocytes extending to the variant lymphocyte window. The lymphocytes of ALL extended to the blast window, with both increase in volume and mild increase in scatter. The lymphocytes in CLL were smaller and located below the normal lymphocyte region. Mean lymphocyte volume was significantly increased in ALL and was significantly decreased in CLL. Mean lymphocyte conductance was significantly increased in CLL and significantly decreased in both acute viral disease and ALL. Mean lymphocyte scatter was significantly decreased in acute viral disease and significantly increased in ALL.
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Risk factors for intestinal colonization with vancomycin resistant enterococci' A prospective study in a level III pediatric intensive care unit p. 89
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Ramachandran Rameshkumar
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_32_17  PMID:29403213
PURPOSE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens across the globe. Gut colonization rate with VRE is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to the higher antibiotic pressure. VRE colonization increases the risk of developing infection up to 5–10 folds. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of VRE colonization among the patients admitted to pediatric ICU (PICU) and risk factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected after 48 h of admission to PICU from 198 patients. The samples were inoculated onto bile esculin sodium azide agar with 6 mg/ml of vancomycin. Growth on this medium was identified by the standard biochemical test, and minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin and teicoplanin was detected by agar dilution method. Resistance genes for vancomycin were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors were assessed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The rates of VRE colonization in patients admitted to PICU was 18.6%. The majority of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium (75.6%) followed by Enterococcus faecalis (24.4%). One patient acquired a VRE bloodstream infection (2.6%) among colonized patients, and none of the noncolonized patients acquired the infection. Consumption of vancomycin was found to be the only risk factor significantly associated with VRE colonization. CONCLUSION: Routine surveillance and isolation of patients found to be VRE colonized may not be possible in tertiary care hospitals; however, educating health-care workers, promoting handwashing with antiseptic soaps or solutions, and antibiotic Stewardship policy may help in the reduction of vancomycin resistance and VRE colonization.
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Utility of horizontal and vertical sections of scalp biopsies in various forms of primary alopecias p. 95
Seetu Palo, Dayananda S Biligi
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_4_17  PMID:29403214
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to demonstrate the usefulness of horizontal and vertical sections of scalp biopsies in diagnosing various forms of primary alopecias and to highlight the importance of error-free grossing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analytical review of 228 scalp biopsies was done, noting down the diagnostic histopathological features evident in horizontal and vertical sections of each cases. The idealness of the sections, especially horizontal section, was also analyzed. RESULTS: Out of the 228 cases, 44 scalp biopsies were classified histologically as cicatricial alopecias and the remaining 162 as noncicatricial alopecia. 22 cases were inconclusive owing to erroneous grossing. We found horizontal sections to be more useful in cases of noncicatricial alopecias, whereas vertical sections proved superior in cicatricial alopecias. CONCLUSION: Combining both horizontally and vertically sectioned scalp biopsies maximizes the diagnostic yield. When a single biopsy is submitted, the choice between horizontal and vertical section should depend on clinical diagnosis/suspicion.
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In vitro cost-effective methods to detect carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae p. 101
Varsha Gupta, Ranu Soni, Neha Jain, Jagdish Chander
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_25_17  PMID:29403215
The rise in carbapenemases-producing organisms has challenged the scientific community. Infections caused by these bacteria have limited treatment options. There are various types such as Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (Ambler class A), metallo-beta-lactamases of VIM-type, IMP-type, NDM-type (Ambler class B), and OXA-48-types (Ambler class D). An efficient strategy for detection of carbapenemase producers is important to determine the appropriate therapeutic modalities. In this study, four methods - Carba NP test, modified Carba NP (MCNP) test, carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) test, and Rapidec Carba NP kit test were evaluated. We evaluated an in-house MCNP test to detect carbapenemase production using a single protocol which gave reliable results. Furthermore, CIM using routine antibiotic discs gives good results. Both these tests were found to be cost-effective.
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Enterobius vermicularis infestation leading to meckel's diverticulitis in an adolescent boy: An extremely rare presentation p. 106
Manupriya Sharma, Rashmi Kaul, Bal Chander
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_142_17  PMID:29403216
Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode commonly affecting children worldwide. Its transmission is by feco-oral route. Meckel's diverticulitis due to E. vermicularis infestation is an extremely rare presentation. An 11-year-old boy presented with acute abdomen. During surgery inflamed Meckel's diverticulum (M.D) was seen. Histopathology examination of specimen revealed E. vermicularis. Till date, only one case of E. vermicularis infestation of M.D is reported around five decades ago. This histopathological confirmation is extremely important as the required treatment (Mebendazole) of the infected case along with household contacts can prevent the spread of infection and may avoid surgery in known contacts.
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Cytopathological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis p. 109
Manjari Kishore, Manju Kaushal, Desh Deepak, Manju Kumari
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_109_17  PMID:29403217
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease characterized by the deposition of extracellular lipoproteinaceous material within the air spaces. Although the diagnosis is mainly based on histopathological findings, sometimes, the diagnostic yield of transbronchial and even open lung biopsy can be unsatisfactory. The advantage with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology is that apart from being safer for the patient, it can sample a much wider area and help in giving an early diagnosis and treatment to the patient. Herein, we present a case of PAP diagnosed on BAL fluid cytology in an elderly female.
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Fine-needle aspiration cytology of granulocytic sarcoma presenting as a breast lump – Report of a rare case with a comprehensive literature search p. 113
Abhishek Sharma, Anjan Kr Das, Subrata Pal, Subodh Bhattacharyya
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_114_17  PMID:29403218
Myeloid sarcoma is a neoplasm of myeloid cells that can arise before or concurrent with or may follow acute myeloid leukemia. Very rarely, it can present as an isolated breast lump. We have diagnosed a case of myeloid sarcoma by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), in a 52-year-old woman who presented with the right-sided breast lump. FNAC showed hypercellular smears with immature myeloid cells few neutrophils and many large round cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli and a moderate amount of granular cytoplasm. The blast cells were myeloperoxidase positive and complete blood count, and peripheral blood examination were normal. We report this case for its rarity and as a note of caution to a pathologist to consider myeloid sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of breast lump to provide the correct diagnosis and avoid incorrect treatment of a curable disease.
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External ophthalmomyiasis by Oestrus ovis: A case report from Davangere p. 116
Sridhar Rao, Navya Radhakrishnasetty, Harithaapriyadarshini Chadalavada, Chandrashekarayya Hiremath
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_18_17  PMID:29403219
External ophthalmomyiasis is an infestation of the eye with larvae of Dermatobia hominis or Oestrus ovis (sheep bot fly). We describe a case of ophthalmomyiasis in a 38-year-old male, who presented with ocular foreign body sensation, redness, pain, and watering of the eye. The causative larvae were removed and sent to the laboratory for identification. By studying morphological features, it was identified as the first instar larvae of O. ovis. The patient was put on topical and oral antibiotics but was lost to follow-up. This is probably the first report from this part of Karnataka.
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Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of brown tumor secondary to parathyroid adenoma p. 118
Sandeep S Ojha, Jyoti Valecha, Abhishek Sharma, Ramrao Nilkanthe
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_3_17  PMID:29403220
Brown tumor (BT) is caused by altered metabolism of calcium resulting from hyperparathyroidism (primary or secondary). The most common cause of hyperparathyroidism is isolated parathyroid adenoma (PA), and the most common symptoms are hypercalcemia related. BT is considered as a late manifestation of PA and usually diagnosed after surgical treatment of the bony lesion. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a cheap, easy, and less traumatic procedure and should be performed in all lesions wherever possible as unnecessary surgeries may be avoided. We here report a rare case of PA presenting primarily as BT and diagnosed on FNAC.
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Granulicatella adiacens abscess: Two rare cases and review p. 121
Sangita Gupta, Meenu Garg, Sanjay Misra, Sanjay Singhal
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_58_17  PMID:29403221
Granulicatella adiacens is a nutritionally variant streptococcus species. These bacteria are rarely isolated in the laboratory due to their fastidious growth requirements. These have been mostly reported from bloodstream infections, infective endocarditis, infections of orbit, nasolacrimal duct and breast implants. Here, we are reporting two cases of subcutaneous abscesses caused by G. adiacens. In first case, it was isolated from abscess around elbow joint and second case was a suprapatellar abscess. We have also reviewed the published data concerning diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Granulicatella infections and included some Indian cases.
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