Journal of Laboratory Physicians
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pancytopenia: A clinico hematological study
BN Gayathri, Kadam Satyanarayan Rao
January-June 2011, 3(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.78555  PMID:21701657
Background: Pancytopenia is a relatively common hematological entity. It is a striking feature of many serious and life-threatening illnesses, ranging from simple drug-induced bone marrow hypoplasia, megaloblastic anemia to fatal bone marrow aplasias and leukemias. The severity of pancytopenia and the underlying pathology determine the management and prognosis. Thus, identification of the correct cause will help in implementing appropriate therapy. Objectives: To study the clinical presentations in pancytopenia due to various causes; and to evaluate hematological parameters, including bone marrow aspiration. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study, and 104 pancytopenic patients were evaluated clinically, along with hematological parameters and bone marrow aspiration in Hematology Unit, Department of Pathology, JJMMC, Davanagere, during the period of September 2005 to September 2007. Results: Among 104 cases studied, age of patients ranged from 2 to 80 years with a mean age of 41 years, and male predominance. Most of the patients presented with generalized weakness and fever. The commonest physical finding was pallor, followed by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Dimorphic anemia was the predominant blood picture. Bone marrow aspiration was conclusive in all cases. The commonest marrow finding was hypercellularity with megaloblastic erythropoiesis. The commonest cause for pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (74.04%), followed by aplastic anemia (18.26%). Conclusion: The present study concludes that detailed primary hematological investigations along with bone marrow aspiration in cytopenic patients are helpful for understanding disease process and to diagnose or to rule out the causes of cytopenia. These are also helpful in planning further investigations and management.
  12,011 1,237 5
REVIEW ARTICLE
Brucellosis: Review on the recent trends in pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis
Supriya Christopher, BL Umapathy, KL Ravikumar
July-December 2010, 2(2):55-60
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.72149  PMID:21346896
Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted from animals to humans by the ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal or inhalation of aerosols. The last method is remarkably efficient given the relatively low concentration of organisms (10 - 100 bacteria) needed to establish infection in humans, and has brought renewed attention to this old disease. Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that has the ability to survive and multiply in the phagocytes and cause abortion in cattle and undulant fever in humans. Brucella spp particularly B. melitensis, B. abortus, and B. suis represent a significant public health concern. At present, B. melitensis is the principle cause of human brucellosis in India. Molecular studies have demonstrated the phylogenetic affiliation of Brucella to Agrobacterium, Ochrobactrum, and Rhizobium. Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, with regard to the understanding of its pathogenic mechanism, severity, progression, and development of improved treatment regimens. Molecular studies have now highlighted the pathogenesis of Brucella, for the development of newer diagnostic tools that will be useful in developing countries where brucellosis is a common, but often a neglected disease. This review compiles all these issues in general and the pathogenicity and newer diagnostic tools in particular.
  9,426 1,481 10
Quorum sensing and bacterial pathogenicity: From molecules to disease
Antariksh Deep, Uma Chaudhary, Varsha Gupta
January-June 2011, 3(1):4-11
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.78553  PMID:21701655
Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration (i.e. a Quorum) and communicate with them. The "language" used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers. Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteria a mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying the production of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficient bacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defense mechanisms and establish infection. Quorum sensing systems are studied in a large number of gram-negative bacterial species belonging to α, β, and γ subclasses of proteobacteria. Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity. Presently, Quorum sensing is considered as a potential novel target for antimicrobial therapy to control multi/all drug-resistant infections. This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation.
  9,038 1,152 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus Aureus by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Conventional Methods: A Comparative Study
Manju M Pillai, Ragunathan Latha, Gautam Sarkar
July-December 2012, 4(2):83-88
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.105587  PMID:23441000
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide, which has emerged over the past 30 years as a leading cause of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Accurate and rapid identification of MRSA in clinical specimens is essential for timely decision on effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. Aim: The present study was conducted to compare two conventional phenotypic methods, oxacillin disk diffusion (ODD) method and mannitol salt agar (MSA) with oxacillin, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mecA gene (as standard). Materials and Methods: A total of 165 consecutive clinical isolates of S. aureus received at the Department of Microbiology in our tertiary care teaching hospital were included in the study. All the isolates were subjected to ODD (1 μg) method, culture in MSA with oxacillin, and PCR for mecA gene. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of ODD test were found to be 93.5% (86.4-97.3%) and 83.5% (79.2-85.8%), respectively, and that of MSA with oxacillin were found to be 87.1% (79.5-92.3%) and 89.3% (84.8-92.5%), respectively. The time taken for diagnosing MRSA by conventional methods is 48-72 h, which is more as compared to PCR which takes 18-24 h. Conclusion: This study recommends advocating PCR for mecA gene on a regular basis for detecting methicillin resistance in S. aureus isolates isolated from sterile body fluids or from special units such as intensive care units.
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Emerging infections: Shewanella - A series of five cases
Krishna Kanchan Sharma, Usha Kalawat
July-December 2010, 2(2):61-65
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.72150  PMID:21346897
Background : Shewanella spp. are unusual cause of disease in humans; however, reports of Shewanella infections have been increasing. Shewanella is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from many foods, sewage, and both from fresh and salt water. Earlier it was named as Pseudomonas putrefaciens or Shewanella putrefaciens. There are several reports describing this organism causing human infections such as cellulitis, abscesses, bacteremia, wound infection, etc. It is oxidase and catalase-positive non-fermenter gram-negative rod that produces hydrogen sulfide. Aims : The study was conducted to identify Shewanella spp., which was wrongly reported as Pseudomonas spp. Materials and Methods : Clinical samples were cultured as per standard clinical laboratory procedure. We tested the non-lactose-fermenting colonies for oxidase positivity. Oxidase-positive colony was inoculated in triple sugar iron slant (TSI) to know the hydrogen sulfide production. Hydrogen sulfide positive colonies were further tested for citrate, urease, indole, and amino acid decarboxylation and acid and gas production from sugars. Results : Five isolates identified as Pseudomonas spp. during preliminary testing were proved to be Shewanella spp. on further testing. Conclusions : It will help in better understanding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and risk factors associated with these and prevention of the rare pathogenic organisms.
  8,209 352 5
Bacteriologic profile and antibiogram of blood culture isolates in a pediatric care unit
Kavitha Prabhu, Sevitha Bhat, Sunil Rao
July-December 2010, 2(2):85-88
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.72156  PMID:21346903
Background / Aims : Septicemia is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates and children. Blood culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains is a major problem in the management of sepsis. Present study was undertaken to identify the common bacterial pathogens associated with pediatric sepsis and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods : Blood cultures from 185 suspected cases of sepsis were examined. The growths from the subcultures were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and drug resistant strains in primary screening were further processed for extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status by combination disk method (ESBL) and oxacillin disk diffusion method (MRSA). Results : Out of the 185 cultures obtained from suspected cases, 81 (44%) were culture positive. Fifty-two (35%) of the culture isolates were Gram negative bacilli. Twenty-eight (64%) of the isolates were Gram positive cocci. One case was of mixed infection. The prevalence of MRSA in 41 strains of S. aureus was found to be 29% (12 strains). The overall prevalence of ESBL producers among 28 Gram negative bacterial isolates was found to be 32% (9 strains). Conclusion : This study stresses the need for the continuous screening and surveillance for antibiotic resistance in pediatric care unit.
  7,099 541 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
Endometriosis - Morphology, clinical presentations and molecular pathology
Neha Agarwal, Arulselvi Subramanian
January-June 2010, 2(1):1-9
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.66699  PMID:21814398
Endometriosis is found predominantly in women of childbearing age. The prevalence of endometriosis is difficult to determine accurately. Laparoscopy or surgery is required for the definitive diagnosis. The most common symptoms are dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and low back pain that worsen during menses. Endometriosis occurring shortly after menarche has been frequently reported. Endometriosis has been described in a few cases at the umbilicus, even without prior history of abdominal surgery. It has been described in various atypical sites such as the fallopian tubes, bowel, liver, thorax, and even in the extremities. The most commonly affected areas in decreasing order of frequency in the gastrointestinal tract are the recto-sigmoid colon, appendix, cecum, and distal ileum. The prevalence of appendiceal endometriosis is 2.8%. Malignant transformation is a well-described, although rare (<1% of cases), complication of endometriosis. Approximately 75% of these tumors arise from endometriosis of the ovary. Other less common sites include the rectovaginal septum, rectum, and sigmoid colon. Unopposed estrogens therapy may play a role in the development of such tumors. A more recent survey of 27 malignancies associated with endometriosis found that 17 (62%) were in the ovary, 3 (11%) in the vagina, 2 (7%) each in the fallopian tube or mesosalpinx, pelvic sidewall, and colon, and 1 (4%) in the parametrium. Two cases of cerebral endometriosis and a case of endometriosis presenting as a cystic mass in the cerebellar vermis has been described. Treatment for endometriosis can be expectant, medical, or surgical depending on the severity of symptoms and the patient's desire to maintain or restore fertility.
  6,886 567 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples
Kavitha Prabhu, Sunil Rao, Venkatakrishna Rao
January-June 2011, 3(1):25-27
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.78558  PMID:21701659
Introduction: The resistance to antimicrobial agents among Staphylococci is an increasing problem. This has led to renewed interest in the usage of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B (MLS B ) antibiotics to treat Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections. The resistance to macrolide can be mediated by msr A gene coding for efflux mechanism or via erm gene encoding for enzymes that confer inducible or constitutive resistance to MLS B antibiotics. In vitro routine tests for clindamycin susceptibility may fail to detect inducible clindamycin resistance due to erm genes resulting in treatment failure, thus necessitating the need to detect such resistance by a simple D test on a routine basis. Materials and Methods : One hundred and ninety S. aureus isolates were subjected to routine antibiotic susceptibility testing including oxacillin (1 ΅g) and cefoxitin (30 ΅g) by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in S. aureus was tested by 'D test' as per CLSI guidelines. Results: Twenty (10%) isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance, 18 (9%) showed constitutive resistance while remaining 16 (8%) showed MS phenotype. Inducible resistance and constitutive resistance were found to be higher in MRSA as compared to MSSA (20%, 16% and 6%, 6%, respectively). Conclusion : Clindamycin is kept as a reserve drug and is usually advocated in severe MRSA infections depending upon the antimicrobial susceptibility results. This study showed that D test should be used as a mandatory method in routine disc diffusion testing to detect inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococci for the optimum treatment of patients.
  6,625 618 9
Significance of histopathology in leprosy patients with 1-5 skin lesions with relevance to therapy
S Veena, Prakash Kumar, P Shashikala, H Gurubasavaraj, HR Chandrasekhar, Murugesh
January-June 2011, 3(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.78557  PMID:21701658
Background: Patients with 1-5 skin lesions are clinically categorized as paucibacillary for treatment purposes. For betterment and adequate treatment of patients, this grouping needs further study. Aim: To study a group of leprosy patients with 1-5 skin lesions, compare clinical details with histopathological findings and bacteriological status of the skin to evaluate the relevance of this grouping. Materials and Methods: Two-year study involving 31 patients of leprosy with 1-5 skin lesions was included in this study. A number of skin lesions were recorded. Skin biopsies were taken in all patients. The biopsies were evaluated for the type of pathology and acid fast bacilli (AFB) status. Results: Of 31 patients, 19 (61.2%) had single skin lesion, 7 (22.5%) had two lesions, 4 (12.9%) had three lesions, and only one (3.22%) had four lesions, there were no patients with five lesions. Of the 31 patients, 30 (96.7%) were clinically diagnosed as borderline tuberculoid and one patient (3.22%) has tuberculoid leprosy. Skin smears were negative for AFB in all patients. The histological diagnoses were: TT 1 (3.22%), BT 24 (77.41%), and IL 6 (19.2%). AFB were found in 2 (6.45%) out of 31 skin biopsies. Clinicopathological correlation was 76.6% in the BT group. Conclusion: Tissue biopsy findings in 1-5 skin lesions which were not considered relevant for treatment purposes until now should be given a status in the categorization and assessment of severity of the disease. The significance of finding of AFB and histopathology of multibacillary (MB) type of leprosy in tissue biopsies, in patients grouped as PB should be resolved so that patients could be given the drug therapy and duration of therapy they warrant.
  6,732 277 -
CASE REPORTS
JAK2 negative polycythemia vera
JP Geetha, CA Arathi, M Shalini, AG Srinivasa Murthy
July-December 2010, 2(2):114-116
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.72215  PMID:21346910
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a stem cell disorder, characterized as a panhyperplastic, malignant, and neoplastic marrow disorder. Several reasons suggest that a mutation on the Janus kinase-2 gene (JAK2) is the most probable candidate gene involved in PV pathogenesis, as JAK2 is directly involved in intracellular signaling, following its exposure to cytokines, to which PV progenitor cells display hypersensitivity. A recurrent unique acquired clonal mutation in JAK2 was found in most patients with PV and other myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs). A female patient of age 50 years, presented with hemiplegia, diplopia, and had a consistent rise in hemoglobin and hematocrit. Serum Erythropoietin (Epo) was decreased. JAK2 mutation analysis was found to be negative. A diagnosis of polycythemia vera was made on the basis of the British Committee for Standards in Hematology (BCSH) guidelines.
  6,597 227 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Biomedical waste management in India: Critical appraisal
Priya Datta, Gursimran Kaur Mohi, Jagdish Chander
January-March 2018, 10(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/JLP.JLP_89_17  PMID:29403196
The safe and sustainable management of biomedical waste (BMW) is social and legal responsibility of all people supporting and financing health-care activities. Effective BMW management (BMWM) is mandatory for healthy humans and cleaner environment. This article reviews the recent 2016 BMWM rules, practical problems for its effective implementation, the major drawback of conventional techniques, and the latest eco-friendly methods for BMW disposal. The new rules are meant to improve the segregation, transportation, and disposal methods, to decrease environmental pollution so as to change the dynamic of BMW disposal and treatment in India. For effective disposal of BMWM, there should be a collective teamwork with committed government support in terms of finance and infrastructure development, dedicated health-care workers and health-care facilities, continuous monitoring of BMW practices, tough legislature, and strong regulatory bodies. The basic principle of BMWM is segregation at source and waste reduction. Besides, a lot of research and development need to be in the field of developing environmental friendly medical devices and BMW disposal systems for a greener and cleaner environment.
  6,241 573 -
EDITORIAL
Promoting affordable and quality tuberculosis testing in India
Madhukar Pai
January-June 2013, 5(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.115895  PMID:24014959
  6,162 321 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Elizabethkingia meningosepticum : An emerging cause of septicemia in critically Ill patients
Smita Sarma, Navin Kumar, Arun Jha, Usha Baveja, Sunil Sharma
January-June 2011, 3(1):62-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.78575  PMID:21701671
  6,099 311 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India
Shilpa Arora, Pushpa Devi, Usha Arora, Bimla Devi
July-December 2010, 2(2):78-81
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.72154  PMID:21346901
Aim : The emergence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has posed a serious therapeutic challenge. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in the hospitals attached to GMC, Amritsar, Punjab. Materials and Methods : The study comprised of 250 coagulase-positive staphylococci (COPS) isolated from a total of 6743 clinical specimens (like pus, blood, urine, high vaginal swab, sputum, etc.) of patients admitted in hospitals attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar from January 2008−February 2009. Routine antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted as per standard guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected using oxacillin and cefoxitin disc diffusion method, oxacillin screen agar method, and minimum inhibitory concentration using broth macrodilution method. Results : A total of 115 (46%) strains were found to be methicillin resistant. Multidrug resistance was observed in 73% MRSA strains. However, no strain was resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion : Regular surveillance of hospital-associated infection and monitoring of antibiotic sensitivity pattern is required to reduce MRSA prevalence.
  5,649 622 1
Detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase production among uropathogens
Ritu Aggarwal, Uma Chaudhary, Rama Sikka
January-June 2009, 1(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.44423  PMID:21938241
Background: Detection of extended spectrum β -lactamase (ESBL) production among uropathogens is an important marker of endemicity. Aim: Intervention of this endemic transmission is important for the control of initial outbreak of ESBL producing organisms in a hospital or specialized unit of hospital. Materials and Methods: During the study period of one and a half months, 1,551 urine samples were processed for significant bacteriuria. Two hundred gram negative bacterial isolates were tested for ESBL production. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was ascertained for ESBL producing isolates. Results: ESBL production was seen in 36% of isolates. All the isolates were multidrug resistant with uniform sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusion: This study reveals the significant prevalence of ESBL producing organisms in this north Indian tertiary care hospital. Constant revision of antibiotic policies with infection control interventions is suggested.
  5,176 1,076 1
Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli infections in a tertiary care hospital in Kolar, Karnataka
A Malini, EK Deepa, BN Gokul, SR Prasad
July-December 2009, 1(2):62-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.59701  PMID:21938252
Aim : Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), which are saprophytic in nature, have emerged as important healthcare-associated pathogens. They exhibit resistance not only to beta lactam and the other groups of antibiotics, but also to carbapenems. This study was undertaken to identify the nonfermenters isolated from various clinical samples, to assess their clinical significance, to know the type of healthcare-associated infections they caused, and to know their anti-microbial sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods : The nonfermenters were identified using a standard protocol that included tests for motility, oxidase production, oxidation-fermentation test for various sugars, gelatin liquefaction, and growth on 10% lactose agar. The clinical significance was assessed by using various criteria and susceptibility testing was performed with the help of the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results : A total of 193 NFGNB were isolated from 189 clinical specimens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common nonfermenter, accounting for 53.8%, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (22.2%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (10.8%). Other significant NFGNB isolated were: Sphingobacterium species (5.2%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (3.1%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (2.6%). P. aeruginosa showed good sensitivity to imipenem (94%), cefoperazone (70%), amikacin (69%), and ticarcillin (63%). A. baumannii showed 100% sensitivity to imipenem and 70% sensitivity to piperacillin. Conclusion : P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were the common NFGNB isolated in our study from patients of, urinary tract infection, bacteremia, surgical site infections, and ventilator associated pneumonia. P. aeruginosa showed good sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin, and cefoperazone while A. baumannii showed good sensitivity to imipenem and piperacillin.
  5,525 682 2
Mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Thomas Alex Kodiatte, Udaya Kumar Manikyam, Suraksha Bellur Rao, Thej Mothakapalli Jagadish, Madhavi Reddy, Harendra Kumar Malligere Lingaiah, Venkataswamy Lakshmaiah
January-June 2012, 4(1):5-9
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.98662  PMID:22923915
Context: diabetes mellitus is a global pandemic. The increased platelet activity may play a role in the development of vascular complications of this metabolic disorder. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is an indicator of the average size and activity of platelets. Larger platelets are younger and exhibit more activity. Aims: to determine the MPV in diabetics compared to nondiabetics, to see if there is a difference in MPV between diabetics with and without vascular complications, and to determine the correlation of MPV with fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body-mass index, and duration of diabetes in the diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: platelet counts and MPV were measured in 300 Type 2 diabetic patients and 300 nondiabetic subjects using an automated blood cell counter. The blood glucose levels and HbA1c levels were also measured. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS using Student's t test and Pearson correlation tests. Results: the mean platelet counts and MPV were higher in diabetics compared to the nondiabetic subjects [277.46 ± 81 X 109/l vs. 269.79 ± 78 X 109/l (P= 0.256)], 8.29 ± 0.74 fl versus 7.47 ± 0.73 fl (P= 0.001), respectively. MPV showed a strong positive correlation with fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose and HbA1C levels (P=0.001). Conclusions: our results showed significantly higher MPV in diabetic patients than in the nondiabetic subjects. This indicates that elevated MPV could be either the cause for or due to the effect of the vascular complications. Hence, platelets may play a role and MPV can be used as a simple parameter to assess the vascular events in diabetes.
  5,541 616 7
Lipid profile of type 2 diabetic and hypertensive patients in the Jamaican population
Lorenzo Gordon, Dalip Ragoobirsingh, Errol Y St A Morrison, Eric Choo-Kang, Donovan McGrowder, E Martorell
January-June 2010, 2(1):25-30
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.66709  PMID:21814403
Aims : Previous studies have shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in females to a greater extent than in males. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the lipid profiles of type 2 diabetic males and females. Materials and Methods : The study included 107 type 2 diabetic patients (41 males and 66 females), and 122 hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients (39 males and 83 females), aged 15 years and older. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were assayed for each group using standard biochemical methods. Results : The mean TC, TG, VLDL-C, HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations, TG/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were higher in type 2 diabetic and hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic, and hypertensive non-diabetic control subjects, although these were not significant (P > 0.05). Hypertensive type 2 diabetic females had significantly higher serum TC (7.42 ± 1.63 mmol/L) than hypertensive non-diabetic males (5.76±1.57 mmol/L; P < 0.05). All the other lipid and lipoprotein parameters except HDL-C were non-significantly higher in females with type 2 DM and those with hypertension and type 2 DM, compared with type 2 diabetic and hypertensive type 2 diabetic males, respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion : This study demonstrated that dyslipidemia exists in our type 2 diabetic population with greater TC in hypertensive type 2 diabetic females compared with hypertensive type 2 diabetic males. This suggests that hypertensive type 2 diabetic females are exposed more profoundly to risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia compared with males.
  5,602 441 1
Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis - Is there a scope for further improvement?
Rajeev Thakur, Renu Goyal, Smita Sarma
January-June 2010, 2(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.66705  PMID:21814402
Aims : Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) still remains a diagnostic challenge because of inconsistent clinical presentation and lack of rapid, sensitive and specific tests. This study was carried out to diagnose TBM by a combination of direct microscopy on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, culture by conventional Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media and Bactec MGIT 960 system in clinically suspected cases, supported by laboratory parameters. Materials and Methods : A total of 164 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from suspected cases of TBM were processed for direct acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear examination, and culture on Bactec MGIT 960 and LJ media. Results : AFB were detected on direct smears in 13 of 164 (7.9%) specimens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated by at least one of the culture methods from 49 (29.8%) CSF samples , of which 45 (27.4%) were detected positive for M. tuberculosis by MGIT 960 culture and 18 (10.9%) by culture on LJ medium. The mean time of detection in MGIT and LJ media for M. tuberculosis were 18 and 38 days, respectively. Conclusions : A combination of laboratory parameters like smear microscopy, conventional culture and automated method like Bactec MGIT increases the sensitivity of diagnosing TBM as compared to any single method.
  5,560 396 5
Rapid identification of yeast isolates from clinical specimens in critically Ill trauma ICU patients
Neetu Jain, Purva Mathur, Mahesh Chandra Misra, Bijayini Behera, Immaculata Xess, Satya Priya Sharma
January-June 2012, 4(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.98667  PMID:22923919
Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available chromogenic Candida speciation media and the Vitek 2 ID system for the identification of medically important yeasts and yeast-like organisms in a routine clinical microbiology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A total of 429 non duplicate, consecutive yeast strains were included during the 3.5-year study period. The performance of the Vitek 2 ID system and a chromogenic agar medium was evaluated against the gold standard conventional phenotypic and biochemical identification method for speciation of yeast isolates from trauma patients. Results: Candida tropicalis (64%) was the most common Candida species, followed by Candida albicans (14%), Candida rugosa (7%), and Candida parapsilosis (6.5%). Of the 429 isolates, 183 could be identified to species level by all the three methods. Agreement between the chromogenic agar method and conventional methods was 80% for Candida tropicalis, 100% for Candida rugosa, 89% for Candida albicans, and 77% for Candida parapsilosis. Vitek 2 had lower sensitivity, with agreement of 49% for Candida tropicalis, 100% for Candida rugosa, 39% for Candida albicans, and 31% for Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion: Thus, in long-term ICU patients, an increasing trend of isolating nonalbicans Candida spp. continues. The chromogenic agar medium is a convenient and economic method to identify commonly isolated species in busy clinical microbiology laboratories.
  5,561 374 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Recurrent challenges for clinicians: emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistance, and current treatment options
Bansidhar Tarai, Poonam Das, Dilip Kumar
July-December 2013, 5(2):71-78
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.119843  PMID:24701097
Gram-positive pathogens mainly, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, are developing increasing resistance to glycopeptides that pose a problem in treating infections caused by these pathogens. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice in treating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired MRSA is associated with infections in patients without recent history of hospital admission and without the classical risk factors for MRSA carriage (including healthcare personnel). MRSA poses new threats and challenges beyond the hospital with the emergence of community-acquired MRSA. Indiscriminate use of vancomycin leads to the emergence and spread of vancomycin resistance in multidrug resistant strains is of growing concern in the recent years. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) remains an important determinant in choosing the right antibiotics. Infections caused by MRSA strains with vancomycin MIC > 4 μg/mL leads to the vancomycin treatment failure. The Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute had also lowered the cut-off susceptibility and resistance breakpoints for vancomycin. Despite the availability of newer antimicrobial agents (Linezolid, Daptomycin, Tigecycline) for drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, clinicians and patients still need options for treatment of MRSA infection. There is a need to reduce the global burden of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens and its resistant strains (mainly MRSA). Continuous efforts should be made to prevent the spread and the emergence of glycopeptide resistance by early detection of the resistant strains and using the proper infection control measures in the hospital setting.
  5,280 611 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Abdominal tuberculosis: A histopathological study with special reference to intestinal perforation and mesenteric vasculopathy
Alakananda Dasgupta, Navjeevan Singh, Arati Bhatia
July-December 2009, 1(2):56-61
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.59700  PMID:21938251
Background : Along with the increased incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in parallel with the increase in population in various parts of the world, in recent years, the incidence of abdominal tuberculosis has also increased. The pathogenetic events in intestinal tuberculosis, which culminate in ulcer formation, perforation, and stricture, still have to be identified. Aim : To correlate the gross and microscopic features in intestinal tuberculosis, in particular tuberculous perforation with changes in mesenteric vasculature. Patients and Methods : A one-year prospective study of excised/resected tissues from patients with abdominal tuberculosis requiring surgical intervention was conducted. Tissues from fifty-six patients were included in the study - of which 36 were resected intestinal segments and 20 were intestinal and lymph node biopsies. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen stains were used for histopathological examination. Results : Tuberculous enteritis was found to be present in 49 of the 56 patients (87.5%) (ileum being the site most commonly affected), while nodal involvement was seen in 39 (69.6%) patients. Perforations were present in 39 out of 49 (79.6%) intestinal tissues; most being solitary and ileum was the commonest site. Typical epithelioid cell granulomas were seen in the intestine and lymph nodes, with caseation being more prevalent in the latter. The mesenteric vasculature was frequently involved by granulomatous inflammation, with intravascular organizing thrombus being present in 30% of the resected specimens with perforation. Acid fast bacilli were demonstrated in the tissue sections of 37.5% of the patients. AFB positivity was higher in caseating granulomas. Conclusion : Involvement of mesenteric vasculature by granulomatous inflammation was commonly associated with the ulcerative type with perforation, suggesting that ischemia caused by vascular thrombosis is responsible for tissue breakdown. This implies that vasculitis plays an important role in the natural history of abdominal tuberculosis.
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Rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections during pregnancy: Necessity for exploring newer treatment options
Meher Rizvi, Fatima Khan, Indu Shukla, Abida Malik, Shaheen
July-December 2011, 3(2):98-103
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.86842  PMID:22219563
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The emergence of drug resistance and particularly the Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance in Staphylococci, limits the choice of antimicrobials. Materials and Methods: Patients in different stages of pregnancy with or without symptoms of urinary tract infection attending the antenatal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology were screened for significant bacteriuria, by standard loop method on 5% sheep blood agar and teepol lactose agar. Isolates were identified by using standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 4290 (51.2%) urine samples from pregnant females showed growth on culture. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria 3210 (74.8%) was higher than symptomatic UTI 1080 (25.2%). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen accounting for 1800 (41.9%) of the urinary isolates. Among the gram-positive cocci, coagulase negative species of Staphylococci 270 (6.4%) were the most common pathogen. Significantly high resistance was shown by the gram negative bacilli as well as gram positive cocci to the β-lactam group of antimicrobials, flouroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Most alarming was the presence of ESBL in 846 (47%) isolates of Escherichia coli and 344 (36.9%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, along with the presence of methicillin resistance in 41% of Staphylococcus species and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in 45(30%) isolates of Enterococcus species. Glycopeptides and carbepenems were the only group of drugs to which all the strains of gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli were uniformly sensitive, respectively. Conclusions: Regular screening should be done for the presence of symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and specific guidelines should be issued for testing antimicrobial susceptibility with safe drugs in pregnant women so that these can be used for the treatment. For empirical treatment cefoperazone-sulbactum can be recommended, which is a safe drug, covering both gram positive and gram negative organisms and with a good sensitivity.
  5,147 650 3
Serum levels of lipids, calcium and magnesium in women with hypothyroidism and cardiovascular diseases
Hussein Kadhem Al-Hakeim
July-December 2009, 1(2):49-52
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.59698  PMID:21938249
Lipid abnormalities in hypothyroidism contribute to the disproportionate increase in cardiovascular risk. A possible relationship between serum level of magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) and cardiovascular disease was recorded. In this work, the possible correlation between lipid profile components and serum cations Ca and Mg was investigated. Matched healthy women were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. All parameters were measured spectrophotometrically. The results showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total and ionized Mg in hypothyroid patients in comparing with control group. There was a significant increase (P <0.05) in serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and (LDL-C)/(HDL-C) ratio in hypothyroid patients as compared with control group. However, no correlation was found between the cation levels and lipid profile of the studied groups. It can be concluded that patients with hypothyroidism exhibited elevated atherogenic parameters (TC and LDL-C) and high risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  5,254 491 -
CASE REPORTS
Cytodiagnosis of epidermoid cyst of the upper lip: A common lesion in an uncommon site
Jyoti Prakash Phukan, Anuradha Sinha, Subrata Pal, Shilpa Jalan
January-June 2014, 6(1):60-62
DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.129097  PMID:24696565
Epidermoid cyst and dermoid cysts are developmental pathologies thought to derive from aberrant ectodermal tissue. They are uncommon in the head and neck region. Rarely, they can be found in the oral cavity and buccal mucosa. However, epidermoid cyst is extremely uncommon in the upper lip and is rarely reported. In this study, we report an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst occurring in the upper lip diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We present this case because of its extremely rare site of presentation and also to highlight the role of FNAC to in the pre-operative diagnosis of this benign lesion.
  5,546 165 -
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